Green Energy|What it is|How does it perform

Green Energy

Before any elaboration about these distinct and diverse technologies generally employed in achieving a "Net-Zero" home, let me underline the importance of having a Complete Home Energy Audit and Simulation. done, as described under the heading of Energy Simulation. and a summary of the Energy Act.

 

Green Energy Act.  ...more...

This act should be studied by all parties interested in purchasing Real Estate.
Bill 150, “Green Energy and Green Economy Act”(Current Status: Royal Assent received, Chapter Number: S.O. 2009 c.12) May 14, 2009.

We will paraphrase sections connected to the Construction and Houses: (Chapter 12, Status of Ontario)

  • Section 3 provides that a person making an offer to purchase an interest in real property has the right to receive from the person selling, the property, prescribed information, ratings or reports relating to energy consumption and efficiency of all the devices installed. The purchaser may, in writing waive this right.
  • Section 4 authorizes the Lieutenant Governor in Council to designate goods, services and technologies, by regulation, in order to promote energy conservation. A person is permitted to use designated, goods, services and technologies in prescribed circumstances despite a restriction imposed that would prevent or restrict their use.
  • Section 5 permits the Lieutenant Governor in Council, to designate renewable energy projects, renewable energy sources or renewable energy testing projects by regulation, to assist in the removal of barriers to... and to promote access to transmission systems and distribution systems for proponents of renewable energy projects.
  • Section 6, authorizes the Lieutenant Governor in Council, by regulation, to require public agencies and prescribed consumers to establish energy conservation and demand management plan.
  • Section 7 of the Act, authorizes two or more public agencies and prescribed consumers to establish, publish and administer a joint energy conservation and demand management plan.
  • Section 8 of the Act, permits the Lieutenant Governor in Council, by regulation, to require public agencies to consider energy conservation and energy efficiency when acquiring goods and services and when making capital investments.


  • For more info, visit “www.ontatio.ca/greenenergy” or call “Minister’Office, 416.327.6747

    The main venues of being part of the “Green Revolution”

    • Installing your own equipment
    • Buying Green Energy

    Generate Power and Money...

    These opportunities are directed to :

    • Home Owners
    • Small Business Owners
    • Farmers
    • Institutional Managers such as:
    • Schools
    • Places of worship
    • Non-Profit Organizations

     

    Technologies for Green Energy Generation (Renewable Energy) are as follows: vis-a-vis the established rates under the Micro fit Program

    Note:

      The "MicroFIT" Program Rates applies only to Generators with a capacity of 10Kw of less
      In the following the table you will see an example for a Solar PV, Roof Top mounted Generator with a Generating Capacity of 3 Kw

    Renewable Energy Connected to the Grid

    Renewable Technology Price($/kwh) Contract Term (years) Percentage Escalated (%)
    Solar PV (RoofTop Mounted
    .82
    20
    0
    Solar PV (Graund Mounted)
    .64
    20
    0
    Wind
    .13
    20
    20
    Water Power
    .14
    20
    20
    Biomass
    .14
    20
    20
    Biogass
    .16
    20
    20
    Land Fill Gas
    .11
    20
    20
     

    Average Electricity Generated by a Roof Top Mounted Solar PV

    Equipment Description Average Energy Produces/Month(Kwh/Mo) Price/Kwh ($/Kwh) Total ($)
    3 Kw Solar PV Roof Top Mounted
    280 Kwh
    .82
    229.6

    In the Present Economic Environment the Provincial Government is offering monetary incentives

     

    Common characteristics of clean energy technologies

    Several characteristics shared by clean energy technologies become apparent when they are compared to conventional energy technologies

    • Clean energy technologies tend to be environmentally preferable to conventional technologies having a minimal environmental impact, when used responsibly and intelligently they provide energy benefits @ an environmental cost far below that of conventional technologies, especially when the conventional energy technology relies on fossil fuel combustion.
    • Clean Energy Technologies tend to have higher initial costs than competing conventional technologies this view ignores the very real costs that are incurred during the operation and maintenance of any energy system, whether clean or conventional.
    • Clean Energy Technologies tend to have a lower operating costs than conventional technologies and Energy Efficiency Measures Reduce the energy requirement and Renewable Energy Technologies make use of Renewable energy often available @ little or no cost.

     

    Renewable Energy- Electricity Generating Technologies

    The most widely applied technologies are as follows:

    • Wind Energy
    • Photovoltaic
    • Small Hydro
    • Biomass Combustion Technologies

    Note:  To see a summary of the listed technologies (in blue) just "click" the blue text.

    Wind Energy Systems:... more...

    converts the kinetic of the moving air into electricity or mechanical power and the electricity so obtained provides power to a central grid or isolated grid.Wind turbines are commercially available in a vast array of sizes ranging from 50 w to 5 Mw power capacity

      The Energy available from the wind increases in proportion to the cube of the wind speed, which typically increases with the height above the ground @ minimum the average wind speed, for a wind energy project should exceed 4m/s @ a height of 10 m above the ground.
      Since 1990s, wind energy technology has emerged as the fasted growing electricity generating technology in the world. This reflects the steady decline in the cost of wind electricity production that has accompanied the maturing of the technology.
    Small Hydro Systems:... more...
    potential and kinetic energy of moving water into electricity, by using a turbine that drives a generator.

    Used for over 100 years, Small Hydro Systems are a reliable and well understood technology that can be used to provide electricity to a central grid or an off-grid load and may be run of the river or include a water storage reservoir.

    Small Hydro Projects can even be less than 1Kw in capacity for small of-greed applications.

    The majority of the cost of a small hydro project stems from up-front expenses in construction and equipment can generate large quantities of electricity with very low operating costs and maintenance expenditures for 50 years or longer.

    Photo Voltaic Systems:... more...

    Photovoltaic systems converts energy from the sun directly into electricity. They are composed of photovoltaic cells, usually a thin wafer or strip of semiconductor material that generates a small current when sunlight strikes them.

    Multiple cells can be assembled into modules that can be wired in an array of any size Small photovoltaic array are found in: wrist watches and calculators, the largest arrays have capacity in excess of 5 Mw.

    Photovoltaic systems are cost effective in small off-grid applications providing power to:

    • Homes: on-grid or off-grid
    • Cottages: off-grid or on-grid
    • Motor Homes
    • Monitoring and control systems
    • Swimming Pools: in-door or out-door
    These electricity generating systems are relatively simple, modular and highly reliable. In climates characterized by extended periods of little sunshine, photovoltaic systems can be combined with fossil driven generators so that the higher load can be satisfied.

    Photovoltaic systems can be tied to isolated or central grid via a specially configured inverter.
    • Photovoltaic systems are cost-effective ; mounted on roofs and other structures thus not incurring the cost of land
    • Photovoltaic systems are designed to integrate perfectly into the building envelope
    • Photovoltaic systems have seen the same explosive growth rates as wind turbines, but staring from a much smaller installed base.
    Renewable Energy: Heating and Cooling Technologies:... more...

    These proven technologies are often cost-effective and have high efficiency. The main ones are summarized bellow

    • Biomass Heating
    • Solar Air Heating
    • Solar Water Heating
    • Passive Solar Heating
    • Ground Source Heat Pump

    Biomass Heating Systems

    Biomass Heating Systems burn organic matter such as:

    • Wood Chips
    • Agricultural Residues
    • Municipal Waste

    Biomass Heating Systems are more sophisticated than wood stoves, highly efficient heating systems achieving near complete combustion of the biomass fuel through control of the fuel and air supply and often incorporating automatic fuel handling systems.

    Biomass Heating Systems consists of a heating plant, a distribution system and a fuel supply operation

    The Heating Plant typically makes use of multiple heat sources including a heat recovery system a biomass combustion chamber a peak load heating system and a back-up heating system.

    The heat distribution system coveys hot water or steam to the loads that may be in the same building or in vicinity of the heating plant.

    Solar Air Heating Systems:... more...

    Solar Air Heating Systems use the solar energy to heat air for building ventilation or industrial processes such as drying. These systems rise the temperature of the outside air by around 5 to 16 °C, on average, and the difference being supplied by conventional heat.

    Typically a solar heating system consists of a transpired collector, which is a sheet of steel or aluminium perforated with numerous tiny holes through which the outside air is drown in. Installed on the equator-facing building wall, the transpired collector absorbs incident sunshine and worms up the layer of air adjacent to it.

    A air fan draws this sun-warmed air trough the perforations, into the air space behind the collector and then into the ducting within the building. Controls regulate the temperature of the air in the building. When heat is not required, as in summertime, a dumper bypasses the collector.The result is an inexpensive, robust simple system,,with virtually no maintenance and efficiencies as high as 80%

    Solar Water Heating Systems:... more...

    Solar water heating systems use solar energy to heat water. Depending on the type of solar collector used, the weather conditions and the hot water demand, the temperature of the water heated can vary from tepid to nearly boiling.

    Most solar systems are meant to furnish 20 to 85% of the annual demand for hot water, the remainder being met by conventional heating sources, which either rise the temperature of the water further or provide hot water when the solar water heating system cannot meet demand.

    Solar systems can be used wherever moderately hot water is required. Off-the shelf packages provide hot water to the bathroom and kitchen of a house; custom systems designed for bigger loads, such as:

    • multi-unit apartments,
    • restaurants
    • hotels
    • motels
    • sport facilities
    • car washes
    • laundries
    Passive Solar Systems:... more...

    Passive solar heating is the selective use of solar energy to provide heating in buildings by using properly oriented , high performance windows and selected interior building materials that can store heat from solar gains during the day and release it at night so reducing the conventional energy required to heat the building.

    A building employing passive solar heating maintains a comfortable interior temperature and reduces a building's space heating requirements by 25 to 55%%.
    Passive solar heating is most cost effective when the building's heating load is high compared to it's cooling load. Cold and moderately cold climates are most appropriate for passive solar heating design.

    Ground-Source Heat-Pumps:... more...

    Ground-source heat pumps (GSHP) provide low temperature heat by extracting it from the ground or a body of water and by reversing this process provide s cooling for a building .The principal application is to provide space heating and cooling, and many support water heating.

    Common type of earth connection comprises tubing buried in horizontal trenches, or vertical bore holes or submerged in a lake or pond.

    The energy extracted from the ground exceeds the energy used to run the heat pump,

    • GSHP efficiencies can exceed 100% and routinely average 200 to 500%
    • GSHP systems are more efficient than conventional heating and air conditioning technologies
    • GSHP have lower maintenance costs, and require less space.
    • Heat pumps range in cooling capacity from 3.5 to 35 kw

    We at A.I.H. Building Design are equipped to navigate with you through the maze of programs and requirements...
    to make your aspirations a reality.

     

    Clean energy legal venues

    Developing comprehensive and customized legal and financial documentation can be a critical barrier to the implementation of energy efficiency, renewable and cogeneration projects. Below we present a summary of the documents that may be required to be developed for your project, depending on the project size.
      

    Note For a summary of the Contracts suggested, below, ( text in blue) just click the blue heading,See the Dipute Resolution, too.

    Real property agreements... more...
    Real property issues are among the most important preliminary considerations of a clean energy project, and can include issues such as project sitting, land surveys, acquiring interests in land (purchase, lease, and /or easement), land title and title insurance, green leasing, permits and approvals, zoning/land use, mimeral/water rights, and securing access to essential resourses. Each component of real property may require specific lagal documents.
    In the context of a clan energy project, the subject of resource acquisition agreements might be water rights (for hydroelectric power generation), geothermal heat source, or unimpeded access to the wind.
    Green leases... more...
    A green lease is either a new lease or a modification to an existing lease that takes into account various environmental considerations, including greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption, water conservation, solid waste production, the use of enevironmentally-friendly materials and procuts. Like a normal commercial lease, a green lease governs the relationship between landlord and tenant, but through an environmental lens. The green leasing process, particularly with respect to modifications to existing leases, can be initiated by either the landlord or tenant (especially large tenants).
    The green leasing process, particularly can relate to or be subsumed in many other project development steps, such as real property agreements; energy performance contracting; design, engineering, and construction; operations and maintenance; (O&M) and environmental attributes. The Real Property Association of Canada has developed some useful documents on green leasing.
    Finance agreements... more...
    Finance agreements are a category of documents that provide the legal structure for meeting project costs. Depending on the size and structure of the project, equity and/or debt financing encompassing a broad spectrum of often complex lagal agreements may be required. Finance agreements can be bilateral or multilateral, and can involve a variety of financial institutions. Obtaining sufficient financing is usually contigent upon having other legal documents in place. Normally, it will be the lender who insists on a suite of legal documents of their own choosing, as it is the lender assuming the finacial risk. Some of the agreements in this venue, are:

    • Construction and Term Loan Agreement
    • Assignment and Security Agreement
    • Stock Pledge Agrement
    • Guaranty
    • Schedule of Definitions
    • Loan Agreement
    • Letter of Credit
    • Security Agrement & Assign. of Certificate of Deposit
    • IFI Load Agreement

    Engineering, procurement & construction agreements.... more...
    Engineering, procurement & construction agreements are agreements that provide the legal framework for the design and engineering of a clean energy system, procurement of equipment and materials, issues related to the actual construction of the project, and installation of clean energy capital equipment. Note: All engineering, procurement, construction, and installation issues can be addressed in a single master agreement or in a series of individual contacts, the choice depending on the requirements and complexity of a particular project.
    Fuel supply and O&M agreements... more...
    A fuel supply agreementis designed to ensure an uninterrupted source of fuel for an energy project, the absence of which could be financially disastrous. Fuel supply agreements are most relevant for clean energy projects that require a combustible fuel, such as biomass or landfill gas.
    O&M agreements codify the terms and conditions around commissioning, operation and maintenance of a clean energy project.
    Power purchase agreements... more...
    A power purchase agreement (PPA) is a contract between an electricity producer and a purchasing entity usually a local utility for the sale and purchase of electricity generated by a power plant. It defines the price at which generated power is sold as well as various other obligations with respect to purchase of the generted power. A properly negotiated PPA is critical part of a clean energy project and often precondition to external financig. Negotiating an appropriate PPA is among the most complicated aspects of developing a clean power project.
    Interconnection agreements... more...
    An energy performance contract is an agreement between an entity (public or private) and an energy services company (ESCO) in which the ESCO undertakes to make the entity's facilities more energy-efficient for compensation that is normally result based and linked to the amount of energy saved. The agreement, which is often for a period of between 7-10 years, encompasses areas such as conducting an initial energy autit and compiling a list of recommendations; project development, construction and installation; and the assumption of techincal and financial risks.
    In this area US had prepared some Models of Contracts which in general can be utilized with minor adjustments as a template.
    Energy performance contracts... more...
    An energy performance contract is an agreement between an entity public or private and an energy service company (ESCO) in which the ESCO undertakes to make the entity's facilities more energy-efficient for compensation that is normally results-based and linked to the amount of energy saved. The agreement, which is often for a period of between 7-10 years, encompasses areas such as conducting an initial energy audit and compiling a list of recomendations; project development, construction, and installation; and the assumption of technical and financial risks.
    Emissions/Environmental attributes trading agreements.... more...
    Emission trading agreements are contracts between a seller and a buyer of carbon or other types of emissions (e.g. NOx and SOx) For greenhouse gas mitigation projects, carbon emission credits are typically traded under the Kyoto Protocol or under various other carbon trading schemes, including voluntary mechanisms. Environmental attributes trading agreements, such as renewable energy certifictes (REC), are a mechanism to sell and purchase enrironmental attributes, which are the legally codified environmental benerfits of renewable energy production. Thse types of agreements can be critical to the financial viability of a clean energy project.

    Set Back?...

    Few days ago (now it's been almost few years, but I will keep it as it is... for "Record") Toronto Star in their Saturday Edition Published an article under the following heading:

    "Ontario solar projects put on hold"


    By: John Spears
    Date: 12 / February / 2011
    Business Section, Page 7

    The Heading arrested my attention, how came I was not aware of this negative development?

    I Started reading the article, 30% into the text, I realized the ineptitude of the writer in selecting the Heading for the content.

    Here I'm reproducing just one sentence from the article:

    "This week they got a notice that only two of their four solar arrays can be connected."

     

    The Article has important facts which unfortunately are not spelled out and I take the liberty of listing some of the relevant ones:

    • Size of and segment of the interest the "MicroFIT" program generated
    • The state of confusion of a great number of professionals active in this area of industry
    • The importance of knowing and following the regulations