Before any elaboration about these distinct and diverse technologies generally employed in achieving a "Net-Zero" home, let me underline the importance of having a Complete Home Energy Audit and Simulation. done, as described under the heading of Energy Simulation. and a summary of the Energy Act.
This act should be studied by all parties interested in purchasing Real Estate. Bill 150, “Green Energy and Green Economy Act”(Current Status: Royal Assent received, Chapter Number: S.O. 2009 c.12) May 14, 2009.
We will paraphrase sections connected to the Construction and Houses: (Chapter 12, Status of Ontario)
For more info, visit “www.ontatio.ca/greenenergy” or call “Minister’Office, 416.327.6747
The main venues of being part of the “Green Revolution”
- Installing your own equipment
- Buying Green Energy
Generate Power and Money...
These opportunities are directed to :
- Home Owners
- Small Business Owners
- Institutional Managers such as:
- Places of worship
- Non-Profit Organizations
Technologies for Green Energy Generation (Renewable Energy)
are as follows: vis-a-vis the established rates under the Micro fit
The "MicroFIT" Program Rates applies only to Generators with a capacity of
10Kw of less
In the following the table you will see an example for a Solar PV, Roof Top mounted
Generator with a Generating Capacity of 3 Kw
|Renewable Technology||Price($/kwh)||Contract Term (years)||Percentage Escalated (%)|
|Solar PV (RoofTop Mounted||
|Solar PV (Graund Mounted)||
|Land Fill Gas||
|Equipment||Description||Average Energy Produces/Month(Kwh/Mo)||Price/Kwh ($/Kwh)||Total ($)|
|3 Kw Solar PV||Roof Top Mounted||
In the Present Economic Environment the Provincial Government is offering monetary incentives
Common characteristics of clean energy technologies
Several characteristics shared by clean energy technologies become apparent when they are compared to conventional energy technologies
- Clean energy technologies tend to be environmentally preferable to conventional technologies having a minimal environmental impact, when used responsibly and intelligently they provide energy benefits @ an environmental cost far below that of conventional technologies, especially when the conventional energy technology relies on fossil fuel combustion.
- Clean Energy Technologies tend to have higher initial costs than competing conventional technologies this view ignores the very real costs that are incurred during the operation and maintenance of any energy system, whether clean or conventional.
- Clean Energy Technologies tend to have a lower operating costs than conventional technologies and Energy Efficiency Measures Reduce the energy requirement and Renewable Energy Technologies make use of Renewable energy often available @ little or no cost.
Renewable Energy- Electricity Generating Technologies
The most widely applied technologies are as follows:
- Wind Energy
- Small Hydro
- Biomass Combustion Technologies
Note: To see a summary of the listed technologies (in blue) just "click" the blue text.
converts the kinetic of the moving air into electricity or mechanical power and the electricity so obtained provides power to a central grid or isolated grid.Wind turbines are commercially available in a vast array of sizes ranging from 50 w to 5 Mw power capacity
The Energy available from the wind increases in proportion to the cube of the
wind speed, which typically increases with the height above the ground @
minimum the average wind speed, for a wind energy project should exceed 4m/s
@ a height of 10 m above the ground.
Since 1990s, wind energy technology has emerged as the fasted growing
electricity generating technology in the world. This reflects the steady
decline in the cost of wind electricity production that has accompanied the
maturing of the technology.
Used for over 100 years, Small Hydro Systems are a reliable and well understood technology that can be used to provide electricity to a central grid or an off-grid load and may be run of the river or include a water storage reservoir.
Small Hydro Projects can even be less than 1Kw in capacity for small of-greed applications.
The majority of the cost of a small hydro project stems from up-front expenses in construction and equipment can generate large quantities of electricity with very low operating costs and maintenance expenditures for 50 years or longer.
Photovoltaic systems converts energy from the sun directly into electricity.
They are composed of photovoltaic cells, usually a thin wafer or strip of
semiconductor material that generates a small current when sunlight strikes
Multiple cells can be assembled into modules that can be wired in an array of any size Small photovoltaic array are found in: wrist watches and calculators, the largest arrays have capacity in excess of 5 Mw.
Photovoltaic systems are cost effective in small off-grid applications providing power to:
- Homes: on-grid or off-grid
- Cottages: off-grid or on-grid
- Motor Homes
- Monitoring and control systems
- Swimming Pools: in-door or out-door
Photovoltaic systems can be tied to isolated or central grid via a specially configured inverter.
- Photovoltaic systems are cost-effective ; mounted on roofs and other structures thus not incurring the cost of land
- Photovoltaic systems are designed to integrate perfectly into the building envelope
- Photovoltaic systems have seen the same explosive growth rates as wind turbines, but staring from a much smaller installed base.
These proven technologies are often cost-effective and have high efficiency. The main ones are summarized bellow
- Biomass Heating
- Solar Air Heating
- Solar Water Heating
- Passive Solar Heating
- Ground Source Heat Pump
Biomass Heating Systems
Biomass Heating Systems burn organic matter such as:
- Wood Chips
- Agricultural Residues
- Municipal Waste
Biomass Heating Systems are more sophisticated than wood stoves, highly
efficient heating systems achieving near complete combustion of the biomass
fuel through control of the fuel and air supply and often incorporating
automatic fuel handling systems.
Biomass Heating Systems consists of a heating plant, a distribution system and a fuel supply operation
The Heating Plant typically makes use of multiple heat sources including a heat recovery system a biomass combustion chamber a peak load heating system and a back-up heating system.
The heat distribution system coveys hot water or steam to the loads that may be in the same building or in vicinity of the heating plant.
Solar Air Heating Systems use the solar energy to heat air for building
ventilation or industrial processes such as drying. These systems rise the
temperature of the outside air by around 5 to 16 °C, on average, and
the difference being supplied by conventional heat.
Typically a solar heating system consists of a transpired collector, which is a sheet of steel or aluminium perforated with numerous tiny holes through which the outside air is drown in. Installed on the equator-facing building wall, the transpired collector absorbs incident sunshine and worms up the layer of air adjacent to it.
A air fan draws this sun-warmed air trough the perforations, into the air space behind the collector and then into the ducting within the building. Controls regulate the temperature of the air in the building. When heat is not required, as in summertime, a dumper bypasses the collector.The result is an inexpensive, robust simple system,,with virtually no maintenance and efficiencies as high as 80%
Solar water heating systems use solar energy to heat water. Depending on
the type of solar collector used, the weather conditions and the hot water
demand, the temperature of the water heated can vary from tepid to nearly
Most solar systems are meant to furnish 20 to 85% of the annual demand for hot water, the remainder being met by conventional heating sources, which either rise the temperature of the water further or provide hot water when the solar water heating system cannot meet demand.
Solar systems can be used wherever moderately hot water is required. Off-the shelf packages provide hot water to the bathroom and kitchen of a house; custom systems designed for bigger loads, such as:
- multi-unit apartments,
- sport facilities
- car washes
Passive solar heating is the selective use of solar energy to provide
heating in buildings by using properly oriented , high performance windows
and selected interior building materials that can store heat from solar
gains during the day and release it at night so reducing the conventional
energy required to heat the building.
A building employing passive solar heating maintains a comfortable interior temperature and reduces a building's space heating requirements by 25 to 55%%.
Passive solar heating is most cost effective when the building's heating load is high compared to it's cooling load. Cold and moderately cold climates are most appropriate for passive solar heating design.
Ground-source heat pumps (GSHP) provide low temperature heat by
extracting it from the ground or a body of water and by reversing this
process provide s cooling for a building .The principal application is to
provide space heating and cooling, and many support water heating.
Common type of earth connection comprises tubing buried in horizontal trenches, or vertical bore holes or submerged in a lake or pond.
The energy extracted from the ground exceeds the energy used to run the heat pump,
- GSHP efficiencies can exceed 100% and routinely average 200 to 500%
- GSHP systems are more efficient than conventional heating and air conditioning technologies
- GSHP have lower maintenance costs, and require less space.
- Heat pumps range in cooling capacity from 3.5 to 35 kw
We at A.I.H. Building Design are equipped to navigate with you through the maze of programs
to make your aspirations a reality.
Clean energy legal venuesDeveloping comprehensive and customized legal and financial documentation can be a critical barrier to the implementation of energy efficiency, renewable and cogeneration projects. Below we present a summary of the documents that may be required to be developed for your project, depending on the project size.
Note For a summary of the Contracts suggested, below, ( text in blue) just click the blue heading,See the Dipute Resolution, too.
In the context of a clan energy project, the subject of resource acquisition agreements might be water rights (for hydroelectric power generation), geothermal heat source, or unimpeded access to the wind.
The green leasing process, particularly can relate to or be subsumed in many other project development steps, such as real property agreements; energy performance contracting; design, engineering, and construction; operations and maintenance; (O&M) and environmental attributes. The Real Property Association of Canada has developed some useful documents on green leasing.
- Construction and Term Loan Agreement
- Assignment and Security Agreement
- Stock Pledge Agrement
- Schedule of Definitions
- Loan Agreement
- Letter of Credit
- Security Agrement & Assign. of Certificate of Deposit
- IFI Load Agreement
O&M agreements codify the terms and conditions around commissioning, operation and maintenance of a clean energy project.
In this area US had prepared some Models of Contracts which in general can be utilized with minor adjustments as a template.
Few days ago (now it's been almost few years, but I will keep it as it is... for "Record") Toronto Star in their Saturday Edition Published an article under the following heading:
"Ontario solar projects put on hold"
By: John Spears
Date: 12 / February / 2011
Business Section, Page 7
The Heading arrested my attention, how came I was not aware of this
I Started reading the article, 30% into the text, I realized the ineptitude of the writer in selecting the Heading for the content.
The Article has important facts which unfortunately are not spelled out and I take the liberty of listing some of the relevant ones:
- Size of and segment of the interest the "MicroFIT" program generated
- The state of confusion of a great number of professionals active in this area of industry
- The importance of knowing and following the regulations