Building Evaluation Report and Energy Consumption Simulations

Our building inspection is a through investigation, addressing issues relevant to safety and comfort of it's occupants.
Without detailed drawings, without intrusive inspection, requiring parts of covering layers to be removed, only on the basis of measurements and Energy Records of at least one year, our accuracy in describing Building's Characteristics is within 98% of the physical reality of the building. The other 2% are explained by builder and building services workmanship.

To customize your building inspection or to analyse the behaviour of your future building/home contact us.
Our analysis could save you money and ensure safety and comfort. Subjects of our report includes the following customizable items:

 

  1. General House Characteristics
  2. House Temperatures (required by the Ontario Building Code)
  3. Window(s) Characteristics
  4. Building Parameters Details
  5. Building Assembly Details
  6. Building Parameters Summary
  7. Air Leakage and Ventilation (when necessary)
  8. F 326 Ventilation Requirements
  9. Central Ventilation System (if applicable)
  10. Secondary fans and other exhaust appliances (if applicable)
  11. Air Leakage and Ventilation Summary (what is applicable)
  12. Space Heating System Information
  13. Air Conditioning System Information (if applicable)
  14. Domestic Water Heating System
  15. Annual Space Heating Summary
  16. Annual Space Cooling Summary (if applicable)
  17. Annual Domestic Water Heating Summary
  18. Base Loads Summary
  19. Fan operation summary (if applicable)
  20. R-2000 Home Program Energy Consumption Summary Report (if applicable)
  21. Estimated Annual Fuel Consumption Summary
  22. Estimated Annual Fuel Consumption Costs
  23. Monthly Energy Profile
  24. Foundation Energy Profile
  25. Foundation Temperatures & Ventilation Profile (if applicable)
  26. Monthly Space Heating System Performance
  27. Monthly Air Conditioning System Performance (if applicable)
  28. Monthly Estimated Energy Consumption by Device
  29. Monthly Estimated Fuel Costs.

When generating the report, the arithmetic results are rounded off for presentation purposes. Therefore, totals in a report many not be exact; however, discrepancies will be marginal.

1. General House Characteristics

This section of the report contains information about the house type, number of storeys, wall and roof colors, year built, soil conditions, water table level and house thermal mass, number of occupants, the percentage of time that the occupants are in the house, (to calculate the sensible internal heat gain from the occupants), also description and analysis of structural state of the building, plumbing, electrical system, the roof's condition, drainage and water infiltration.

2. House Temperatures

Lists the set point temperature required by the Building Code of the various parts of the house

3. Window Characteristics

Presented in two tables of information: (a) the first table presents the location of the windows, the number and the type , the overhang width and the header height, the tilt angle of the window, the curtain shading factor and the thermal resistance of the shutter if applicable, (b) the second table presents the window type, the rough opening width and height, total area, the thermal resistance of the window and the solar heating gain coefficient (SHGC).

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4. Building parameters details

This section includes in the following order, ceilings, walls, exposed floor (if appropriate), doors, foundations and the roof cavity inputs, a description of each of the layers in the construction.

5. Building Assembly Details

This section lists three different thermal resistances for each above-and below-grade wall, each ceiling, and each floor component. These thermal resistances are:

  • Nominal RSI, which is the thermal resistance of the insulation only,
  • System RSI, which is the thermal resistance of the system or component (wall, ceiling, floor) including thermal bridging of the framing layers, any other layers that were added (such as exterior finishes and interior finishes) and air film coefficients, but not including any openings (such as windows and doors)
  • Effective RSI,which is the overall thermal resistance of the component including any openings.

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6. Building Parameter Summary

This section of the report consists of a number of tables, one for each of the building components. Each table lists the gross and net areas and the thermal resistances (m2 *C/W) of each building component type, and gives the corresponding heat loss and the thermal resistance. The thermal bridging is also accounted for, therefore the Net Thermal resistance is given. For windows with shutters, the heat loss for an orientation includes the effectiveness of the shutter in reducing heat loss.

The other two columns of the table are:

  • Heat Loss, which is the total heat loss through the building component. It is the amount of total heat loss that would have to be replaced by using space heating, if there were no internal and solar gains. This heat loss is accounted for when determining which part of the component require thermal upgrading.
  • % Annual Heat Loss, is the percentage of the contribution of that building component to the total heat loss of the home.

The ventilation section is the seasonal summary showing the sum of natural air infiltration and mechanical ventilation heat losses. This data includes the total heated volume of the house and the average air change rate for the house. The average air change rate is the sum of the calculated natural infiltration rate and the maximum of the supply and exhaust rates for the central ventilation system and secondary fans. The ventilation annual heat loss includes losses due to all specified air exchange devices and any heat recovered by the mechanical ventilation system.

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7. Air Leakage and Ventilation

The first part of this section of the report represents the air infiltration data. This includes the average natural infiltration rate, fan depressurization test results, and the construction type. These fields are:

  • Building Envelope Surface Area, which is the entire surface are enclosing the heated house volume. The walls in an unheated crawlspace are not included in the surface area summary.
  • Air Tightness Level, or Air Leakage Test Results at 50 Pa. which is the blower door test results.
  • Terrain Description, presents the data describing the weather station site, the building site and the heights of the anemometer and the building eaves.
  • Local Shielding for walls and flues, describing the shielding conditions for the walls and flue from wind.
  • Leakage Fraction for ceilings, walls, and floors, presenting the fraction of air leakage through exposed ceiling, walls and floors.
  • Equivalent Leakage Area (ELA), estimated to calculate air flows.

8. F326 Ventilation Requirements

This section provides a summary of the rooms in the house and represents minimum continuous ventilation requirements in L/s according to the Canadian Standard Association's (CSA), Standards F326, Residential Mechanical Ventilation Requirements.

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9. Central Ventilation System

The ventilation system information, if the ventilation system includes a heat recovery ventilator, all entered ventilation data is presented. The following fields are calculated and presented:

  • Low Temperature Ventilation Reduction, which is the percent of which the ventilation rate of the heat recovery ventilator must be increased based on the month of January to compensate for reduced air flow due to frosting of the heat recovery ventilator.
  • Low Temperature Ventilation Reduction: Airflow Adjustment, is the magnitude of the airflow adjustment.

10. Secondary Fans and Other Exhaust Appliances

This section presents the date entered in the Ventilation screen for other fans, for the dryer and for Devices over 75 L/s

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11. Air Leakage and Ventilation Summary

This section provides the following information:

  • F326 Required Continuous Ventilation Rate, is the sum of the room requirements presented both as airflow and air changes rates. This represents the ventilation system air flow setting that meets the R-2000 Home Program minimum continuous ventilation requirements.
  • Central Ventilation Supply Rate (Balanced) is the average air change rate used for ventilation heat-loss calculations.
  • Other Continuous Supply Flow Rates, which is the average air change rate for non-central supply fans.
  • Other Continuous Exhaust Flow Rates, is the average air change rate for non-central exhaust fans.
  • Gross Air Leakage and Ventilation Energy Load, is the seasonal air infiltration and mechanical ventilation energy load for the house without heat recovery.
  • Seasonal Heat Recovery Ventilator Efficiency, calculated by completing an hourly bin analysis on the heat recovery ventilator using the entered efficiency test data.
  • Estimated Ventilation Electrical Load: Heating Hours, is the annual amount of electrical energy required to operate the ventilation system (including pre-heaters) below the house set-point temperature. All hours below the set point temperature are assumed to be heating hours, and the electrical energy input of the fans and heaters during these hours will reduce the ventilation air heating requirements.
  • Estimated Ventilation Electrical Load: Non-Heating Hours, which is the annual sum of ventilator electrical consumption for all hours above the set-point temperature. This electrical energy does not offset space heating requirements and will be changed as separate electrical consumption.
  • Net Air Leakage and Ventilation Energy Load, includes heat recovery and fan operation of the heat recovery ventilator. If the mechanical ventilation does not include heat recovery, the net load will equal the gross load.

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12. Space Heating System Information

This section of the report summarizes the information entered for the space heating system in the house. The heating output capacities (Kw) and efficiencies of the units are also presented. If the entered space heating output capacity is less than the derived design heat loss, the message "Insufficient capacity" is printed with the entered heating capacity.

When a heat pump is installed, the entered technical characteristics of the heat pump are also presented for verification and as a permanent record. These include the manufacturer, model, entered heating capacity, coefficient of performance (COP) temperature control strategy, and the heat pump energy source.

If the heat pump is performing a cooling function as well, the heat pump data for cooling is presented in the Air Conditioning System section.

This section also displays any data entered for radiant or hydronic heating and for solid fuel burning equipment.

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13. Air Conditioning System Information

This section of the report summarizes the information entered for the space cooling system in the house. It also presents the calculated values for the cooling load and the sensible heat ratio for the specified design month.

14. Domestic Water Heating System

This section of the report presents a summary of the characteristics of the primary and secondary water heating systems data.

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15. Annual Space Heating Summary

This section of the report is a seasonal heat loss/gain summary of the house and indicates the energy requirements and consumption of the house during a calendar year. It includes:

  • Design Heat Loss at..., is the design heat loss divided by the house volume (w/m3) and is based on the 21/2% January Design condition. The design heat loss is used for sizing the space heating equipment, or verification as appropriate.
  • Gross Space Heating Load, which is the sum of the annual component heat losses, including the effects of heat recovery, but excluding usable internal and solar heat gains. It is the energy load in the month profile.
  • Usable Internal Gains, is the sum of the internal heat gains used during the heating season.
  • Usable Internal Gains, is the sum of the annual component heat losses, including the effects of heat recovery, but excluding usable internal and solar heat gains. It is the energy load in the monthly profile.
  • Usable Internal Gains Fraction, is the annual percentage of the gross space heating load provided by useful internal gains.
  • Usable Solar Gains, is the sum of the passive solar heat gains used during the heating season
  • Usable Solar Gains Fraction, is the annual percentage of the gross space heating load provided by utilized solar gains. For this reason, the annual useful fraction is usually considerably lower than the internal heat gains fraction.
  • Auxiliary Energy Required, which is the amount of heat energy the space heating equipment must provide (including air infiltration heat losses due to the chimney or furnace draft during those times when the furnace is not operating) to maintain the house temperatures. It is calculated as the gross energy load less the usable internal and solar heat gains.
  • Space Heating System Load, is the sum of the monthly space heating system loads. For each month this is equal to the auxiliary energy plus the increase in air infiltration heat loss due to furnace operation. For space heating auxiliary energy required.
  • Furnace / Boiler Seasonal Efficiency, is the average efficiency of the unit over the whole year.
  • Furnace / Boiler Annual Energy Consumption, is the sum of the calculated monthly energy consumption of the unit. This is the amount of energy required to maintain the house at the set point temperature. It does not include energy consumption by fans.

If the house contains a heat pump, two additional items are presented and the meaning of two existing items is different, as described below:

  • Heat Pump and Furnace Annual COP, is a seasonal weighted average coefficient of performance of heat pump and space heating equipment operating together to meet the space heating load. The COP is calculated by dividing the space heating load by the total energy input to the heat pump, furnace / boiler fans during the heating hours, and any pilot light energy. Only those months with a net space heating load are included in the annual COP calculation.
  • Heat Pump Annual Energy Consumption, is the total energy input to the heat pump in providing a portion of the net space heating load.
  • Furnace / Boiler Annual Energy Consumption, is now the total energy input to the furnace / boiler in providing the remainder of the net space heating load.
  • Annual Space Heating Energy Consumption, is the sum of the heat pump and furnace / boiler energy inputs to meet the net space heating load.

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16. Annual Space Cooling Summary (if applicable)

This section of the report summarizes the space cooling information for the calendar year. This information includes:

  • Design Cooling Load for month, is the estimated cooling load that must be met for the house, based on the selected month, and the design cooling dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures specified.
  • Design Sensible Heat Ratio, is the sensible heat ratio (SHRA) at design conditions. SHRA is the ratio of sensible to total (sensible + latent) load. Sensible load is that part of the cooling load due to temperature change. Latent load is due to change of state (e.g. dehumidification of the air resulting from cooling)
  • Estimated Annual Space Cooling Energy, is the estimated amount of energy that will be required by the space cooling system for the month specified.
  • Seasonal COP, (month 1 to month 2), is the calculated coefficient of performance of the space cooling system for the cooling period beginning month 1 and ending month 2.

If a heat pump was input for cooling purposes, the results for the heat pump in cooling mode will appear in this section.

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17. Annual Domestic Water Heating Summary.

This section of the report is a summary of the annual domestic water heating information and calculation results. The categories are:

  • Daily Hot Water Consumption, is the hot water requirement, estimated
  • Hot Water Temperature, is the temperature of the hot water delivered to faucets
  • Estimated Domestic Water Heating Load, is a measure of the total hot water heating requirement for the home, not including tank standby losses.
  • Solar Domestic Water Heating System Contribution, is the amount by which the water heating load is offset due to the solar water heater. (if applicable)
  • Domestic Water Heating Energy Consumption, is presented if a water heating system is installed. It is determined as the load divided by the seasonal efficiency of the water heating equipment (including standby losses)
  • Seasonal Efficiency, is the efficiency of the system taking into account the load, the location of the house (affects the temperature of the intake water) and the location of the tank (affects standby losses)

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18. Base Loads Summary

In this section of the report the categories are:

  • Interior Lighting, Appliance, and Other
  • Exterior Use
  • HVAC fans, for HRV /Exhaust, Space Heating and Space Cooling (what is applicable)
  • Total Average Electrical Load

19. Fan Operation Summary

The fan operation summary is a table that presents the annual electrical energy consumption of all fans in the house. The fan types are: HRV / Exhaust fans, space heating fans, and space cooling fans. For each fan type, the table lists the amount of energy consumed by the fans for the heating hours, the cooling hours (if an air conditioner is installed) and for the hours in which neither heating nor cooling is required.

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20. R-2000 Home Program Energy Consumption Summary Report (if applicable)

The R-2000 Program summary presents the following results (in both MJ and KW/h)

  • Estimated Annual Space Heating Energy Consumption, is the amount of furnace / boiler energy or heat pump and furnace / boiler energy required to meet the net annual space heating load. This calculation also includes energy consumption by the furnace fan during the heating hours.
  • Ventilator Electrical Consumption: Heating Hours, is the amount of additional electrical energy required to operate the heat recovery ventilator during space heating times. This is an additional charge to the space heating system, because the electrical energy serves to replace a portion of the space heating load of the home. Exhaust fans on the heat recovery ventilator are excluded because this electrical energy is lost to the outside.
  • Estimated Annual DHW Heating Energy Consumption is the amount of energy required to provide water heating. if a solar collector system exists, the annual domestic hot water energy is the amount of backup water heating energy required.
  • Estimated Annual Space + DHW Energy Consumption, is the sum of the annual space heating consumption, ventilator electrical consumption during space heating hours, and annual domestic water heating energy consumption, less any space or water heating energy credits.
  • Annual R-2000 Space + DHW Energy Consumption Target, is the derived space and water heating target determined for the house, based on the heated volume of the house, annual heating degree days, and space heating and water heating system factors.

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21. Estimated Annual Fuel Consumption Summary

This section of the report is a summary of the amount of fuel required for space heating, space cooling, DHW heating and appliances.

22. Estimated Annual Fuel Consumption Costs

This table contains the annual fuel costs by fuel type for each of the appliances in the house.

23. Monthly Energy Profile

This monthly table presents a month-by month listing of the space heating energy demands for the house:

  • Energy Load, is the total heating load for the house. The load is calculated by summing all the heat losses of the house and subtracting the monthly heat recovery ventilator contribution. (when applicable)
  • Internal Gains, are the internal gains used to offset the space heating loads for the month. This value is not a measure of the total available internal heat gains, since a portion of the heat gains are lost from the house.
  • Solar Gains, which are the passive solar heat gains used to offset space heating for the month, requiring it. In the summer months, little of the passive solar heat gains are used to offset space heating loads, since space heating loads are reduced.
  • Auxiliary Energy, is the space heating auxiliary energy required of the space heating system. This value is column 1 minus columns 2 and 3. The annual sum of the auxiliary energy required equals the auxiliary energy required on the annual space heating summary chart.
  • HRV Efficiency, is the monthly weighted efficiency of the heat recovery ventilator in providing heat energy. Peak heat recovery occurs in the early spring months when the unit is not in frost protection, and the temperature differences across the core of the unit is sufficient to allow maximum heat transfer.

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24. Foundation Energy Profile

This table lists the net heat loads (in MJ ) for crawl space, slab-on-grade, basement and walkout foundation on a monthly basis. The heat load takes into account the heat loss / gain through the foundation walls and slab, the heat loss / gain to the main floor, internal gains and solar gains. If there is more than one foundation of a particular type the value presented is the sum of the heat loads of both foundations. The table also presents the total heat load from all foundations in the house.

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25. Foundation Temperatures and Ventilation Profile

This section of the report presents the monthly and annual temperatures for the crawl space, basement and walkout foundations. It also provides the monthly and annual natural and total air change rates for the house.

26. Monthly Space Heating Systems Performance

This monthly table is a summary of the results of the space heating calculations. The following categories are presented:

  • Space Heating Load, is the energy load that space heating systems must provide. The monthly space heating load is equal to the auxiliary energy required plus any additional air heat loss due to furnace operation.
  • Furnace Input, is the amount of energy the furnace / boiler must contribute to the space heat required.
  • Pilot Light, is the amount of energy consumed by a pilot light.
  • Indoor Fans, is the amount of electrical energy consumed by the furnace fans.
  • Heat Pump Input, is the amount of energy that the heat pump must contribute to the space heat required.
  • Total Input, is the sum of the furnace input, the pilot light energy, the indoor fan energy and the heat pump input energy (if applicable). This is the entire input energy required to meet the space heating requirements of the home.
  • System COP, is the coefficient of performance of the combination furnace / boiler and heat pump, (when applicable). It is calculated as the space heat required divided by the total input.

If the furnace / boiler and the heat pump are electric, the entire table is presented in KW/h.

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27. Monthly Air Conditioning System Performance (if applicable)

This monthly table is a summary of the results of the space cooling (air conditioning) calculations. The categories are:

  • Sensible Load, is the part of the cooling load due to temperature change.
  • Latent Load, is the part of the load due to change of state, such as dehumidification of the air.
  • Air Cond. Energy is the electrical energy required to run the compressor and the outdoor fan.
  • Fan Energy is the electrical energy required to run the indoor fan.
  • Ventilator Energy, is the electrical energy required to run the ventilator.
  • Total Energy, is the total electrical energy required to run the air conditioner (to maintain the temperature at the cooling set-point for the months specified. This energy includes the crankcase heater energy, which is calculated as the difference between total energy and that used for the air conditioner, fan, and ventilator. For systems in which the heat pump is in dual mode (integrated system for heating and cooling), the crankcase energy is split into heating and cooling hours in the months that the air conditioning system is operation.
  • COP, is the coefficient of performance of the air conditioning system. It is calculated as the ratio of total load (sensible + latent) / total cooling energy. Seasonal COP includes only the months for which the air conditioner is operating.
  • AV.RH is the estimated average indoor relative humidity (which would occurs if the air conditioner were to operate as per specification)

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28. Monthly Estimated Energy Consumption by Device

This monthly table presents a month-by-month listing of the calculated energy consumed by devices in the house. Devices are grouped as:

  • Space Heating (Primary and Secondary),
  • Domestic Hot Water Heating (Primary and Secondary)
  • Lighting and Appliances,
  • Heat Exchange Ventilator and Fans (which includes exhaust, space heating system and air conditioner fans) if applicable, and
  • Air Conditioner including any cooling performed by a heat pump, if applicable.

The last row of the table presents the annual energy consumption for each device.

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29.Monthly Estimated Fuel Costs

This table presents the month-by-month fuel costs for each fuel type. It also presents the total annual fuel costs for each fuel type and the total fuel costs for each month.

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Respectfully: Horia Albu and the team.

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